All such works tended to set humanist poetry of a type that attempted to imitate Petrarch and his Trecento followers, another element of the period's tendency toward a desire for restoration of principles it associated with a mixed-up notion of antiquity. The solo madrigal, frottola, villanella and their kin featured prominently in the intermedio or intermezzo, theatrical spectacles with music that were funded in the last seventy years of the 16th century by the opulent and increasingly secular courts of Italy's city-states.
Such spectacles were usually staged to commemorate significant state events: weddings, military victories, and the like, and alternated in performance with the acts of plays. Like the later opera, an intermedio featured the aforementioned solo singing, but also madrigals performed in their typical multi-voice texture, and dancing accompanied by the present instrumentalists.
They were lavishly staged, and led the scenography of the second half of the 16th century. The intermedi tended not to tell a story as such, although they occasionally did, but nearly always focused on some particular element of human emotion or experience, expressed through mythological allegory. The staging in of Peri's opera Euridice as part of the celebrations for a Medici wedding, the occasions for the most spectacular and internationally famous intermedi of the previous century, was probably a crucial development for the new form, putting it in the mainstream of lavish courtly entertainment.
Another popular court entertainment at this time was the " madrigal comedy ", later also called "madrigal opera" by musicologists familiar with the later genre. This consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged.
Although these lost works seem only to have included arias , with no recitative , they were apparently what Peri was referring to, in his preface to the published edition of his Euridice , when he wrote: "Signor Emilio del Cavalieri, before any other of whom I know, enabled us to hear our kind of music upon the stage". The music of Dafne is now lost.
The opera, Euridice , with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini , recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a heightened form of natural speech, dramatic recitative supported by instrumental string music.
Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it soon became the custom to include separate songs and instrumental interludes during periods when voices were silent. Both Dafne and Euridice also included choruses commenting on the action at the end of each act in the manner of Greek tragedy. The theme of Orpheus, the demi-god of music, was understandably popular and attracted Claudio Monteverdi — who wrote his first opera, La Favola d'Orfeo The Fable of Orpheus , in for the court of Mantua.
Monteverdi insisted on a strong relationship between the words and music. When Orfeo was performed in Mantua , an orchestra of 38 instruments, numerous choruses and recitatives were used to make a lively drama. It was a far more ambitious version than those previously performed — more opulent, more varied in recitatives, more exotic in scenery — with stronger musical climaxes which allowed the full scope for the virtuosity of the singers.
Opera had revealed its first stage of maturity in the hands of Monteverdi. L'Orfeo also has the distinction of being the earliest surviving opera that is still regularly performed today. Within a few decades opera had spread throughout Italy. Rospigliosi's patrons were the Barberini. Since the s, the subject of the works changed greatly: those of the pastoral tradition and Arcadia, it is preferable that the poems of chivalry, usually Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso , or those taken from hagiography and Christian commedia dell'arte.
With the increased number of characters, the Roman operas became very dramatic, and had several twists. With these came along a new method of fixing the lines of the recitative, better suited to the various situations that arose from the rich storyline and that was closer to speech, full of parenthetical at the expense of the paratactic style that had so characterized the first Florentine works. The principal characteristics of Venetian opera were 1 more emphasis on formal arias; 2 the beginning of bel canto "beautiful singing" style, and more attention to vocal elegance than to dramatic expression; 3 less use of choral and orchestral music; 4 complex and improbable plots; 5 elaborate stage machinery; and 6 short fanfarelike instrumental introductions, the prototypes of the later overture.
Opera took an important new direction when it reached the republic of Venice. It was here that the first public opera house, the Teatro di San Cassiano , was opened in by Benedetto Ferrari and Francesco Manelli.http://gohu-takarabune.com/policy/localizar/rar-localizar-mi.php
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Its success moved opera away from aristocratic patronage and into the commercial world. In Venice, musical drama was no longer aimed at an elite of aristocrats and intellectuals and acquired the character of entertainment. Soon many other opera houses had sprung up in the city, performing works for a paying public during the Carnival season.
The opera houses employed a very small orchestra to save money. A large part of their budget was spent on attracting the star singers of the day; this was the beginning of the reign of the castrato and the prima donna leading lady. The chief composer of early Venetian opera was Monteverdi, who had moved to the republic from Mantua in , with later important composers including Pier Francesco Cavalli , Antonio Sartorio , and Giovanni Legrenzi.
The subjects of the new operas by Monteverdi and others were generally drawn from Roman history or legends about Troy, in order to celebrate the heroic ideals and noble genealogy of the Venetian state. However they did not lack for love interest or comedy. Most of the operas consisted of three acts, unlike the earlier operas which normally had five. The bulk of the versification was still recitative, however at moments of great dramatic tension there were often arioso passages known as arie cavate.
Under Monteverdi's followers, the distinction between the recitative and the aria became more marked and conventionalised. This is evident in the style of the two most successful composers of the next generation: Francesco Cavalli and Antonio Cesti.
In the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth a tradition of operatic production began in Warsaw in , with a performance of Galatea composer uncertain , the first Italian opera produced outside Italy. Another first, this is the earliest surviving opera written by a woman. Gli amori di Aci e Galatea by Santi Orlandi was also performed in A dramma per musica as serious Italian opera was known at the time entitled Giuditta , based on the Biblical story of Judith , was performed in The composer was probably Virgilio Puccitelli. Cavalli's operas were performed throughout Italy by touring companies with tremendous success.
In fact, his Giasone was the most popular opera of the 17th century, though some critics were appalled at its mixture of tragedy and farce. Cavalli's fame spread throughout Europe.
One of his specialties was giving his heroines " ground bass laments ". These were mournful arias sung over a descending bass line and they had a great influence on Henry Purcell , whose "When I am laid in earth" from Dido and Aeneas is probably the most celebrated example of the form. Italian opera had already been performed in France in the s to a mixed reception and Cavalli's foreign expedition ended in disaster. French audiences did not respond well to the revival of Xerse and the specially composed Ercole amante , preferring the ballets that had been inserted between the acts by a Florentine composer, Jean-Baptiste Lully , and Cavalli swore never to compose another opera.
Cesti was more fortunate when he was asked to write an opera for the Habsburg court in Vienna in Il pomo d'oro was so grandiose that the performance had to be spread over two days. It was a tremendous success and marked the beginning of Italian operatic dominance north of the Alps.
In the late 17th century, German and English composers tried to establish their own native traditions but by the early 18th century they had given ground to imported Italian opera, which became the international style in the hands of composers such as Handel. Only France resisted and her operatic tradition had been founded by the Italian Lully. This set the pattern until well into the 19th century: the Italian tradition was the international one and its leading exponents e.
Handel, Hasse, Gluck and Mozart were often not natives of Italy. Composers who wanted to develop their own national forms of opera generally had to fight against Italian opera. Thus, in the early 19th century, both Carl Maria von Weber in Germany and Hector Berlioz in France felt they had to challenge the enormous influence of the Italian Rossini.
By the end of the 17th century some critics believed that a new, more elevated form of opera was necessary. Their ideas would give birth to a genre, opera seria literally "serious opera" , which would become dominant in Italy and much of the rest of Europe until the late 18th century.
The influence of this new attitude can be seen in the works of the composers Carlo Francesco Pollarolo and the enormously prolific Alessandro Scarlatti. Rate This. Director: Joel Schumacher. From metacritic. The best adventure movies! Movie musicals.
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Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Nominated for 3 Oscars. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Gerard Butler The Phantom Emmy Rossum Christine Patrick Wilson Raoul Miranda Richardson Madame Giry Minnie Driver Firmin Simon Callow Andre Victor McGuire Piangi Jennifer Ellison Meg Giry Murray Melvin Reyer Kevin McNally Buquet as Kevin R. McNally James Fleet Lefevre Imogen Bain Carlotta's Maid Miles Western Carlotta's Wigmaker Judith Paris Edit Storyline Begins when an opera ghost terrorizes the cast and crew of the French Opera House while tutoring a chorus girl.
Taglines: The world's biggest musical! Language: English Italian. Production Co: Warner Bros. Runtime: min. Color: Black and White Color. Edit Did You Know?
La stagione di Ettore e Fernanda
In the following scene in the Phantom's lair, he clearly has a five o'clock shadow, even though the progression of the story is merely minutes. Quotes [ first lines ] Auctioneer : Sold. Your number, sir? Thank you. Connections Referenced in Chelsea Lately: Episode 7. Q: What does OG mean? Was this review helpful to you?
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